General electives can be selected from all the courses offered at Koç University.

ELEC 421 / PHOTONICS AND LASERS
Sınıf: Credit: 3Precondition: (ELEC. 206 or PHYS. 302) or consent of the instructor

Review of electromagnetism; electromagnetic nature of light, radiation, geometrical optics, Gaussian beams, transformation of Gaussian beams; electromagnetic modes of an optical resonator, interaction of light with matter, classical theory of absorption and dispersion, broadening processes, Rayleigh scattering, quantum theory of spontaneous and stimulated emission, optical amplification, theory of laser oscillation, examples of laser systems, Q switching and mode locking of lasers.

ELEC 422 / INTRODUCTİON TO MEMS AND MOEMS
Sınıf: Credit: 3Precondition:

Introduction to Microsystems, MEMS and its integration with optics; Microfabrication and process integration; MEMS Modeling and design; Actuator and sensor design; Mechanical structure design; Optical system design basics; Packaging; Optical MEMS application case studies; Scanning systems (Retinal Scanning Displays, Barcode scanners); Projection display systems (DMD and GLV); Infrared imaging cameras; Optical switching for telecommunications.

ELEC 423 / OPTICAL INFORMATION PROCESSING
Sınıf: Credit: 3Precondition:

Review of 2-D linear system theory and 2-D Fourier transforms. Integral transforms used in optical signal processing; Fundamentals of physical optics and diffraction theory; Fourier and imaging properties of optical systems; Coherent and Incoherent optical image processing; Fundamental architectures for correlation and spectrum analysis; Interferometry; Discrete analog optical processors; Holography; Review of 3D Display technologies.

ELEC 424 / OPTICAL FIBER COMMUNICATIONS
Sınıf: Credit: 3Precondition: (ELEC. 206 and ELEC. 316) or consent of the instructor

Introduction to optical fiber communication systems. Transmission properties of optical fibers. Optical amplifiers. Lasers and photo-detectors. Analog and digital modulation schemes. Modulator, transmitter and receiver design. Dense and ultra-dense wavelength division multiplexing. Transmission impairments, noise, nonlinearities, dispersion compensation and management, modeling and simulation. Optical fiber communication networks, optical interconnect for high-speed VLSI.

ELEC 425 / PHOTONIC MATERIALS AND DEVICES
Sınıf: Credit: 3Precondition: ELEC. 206 and PHYS. 302

Survey of the properties and applications of photonic materials and devices; semiconductors; photon detectors, light emitting diodes, noise in light detection systems; light propagation in anisotropic media, Pockels and Kerr effects, light modulators, electromagnetic wave propagation in dielectric waveguides, waveguide dispersion; nonlinear optical materials, second harmonic generation, Raman converters.

ELEC 427 / ANTENNAS AND PROPAGATION
Sınıf: Credit: 3Precondition: ELEC. 401 or consent of the instructor

Applications of Maxwell’s equations. Electrostatic versus electrodynamic phenomena, and concept of electromagnetic radiation; radiation from a moving point charge; definitions of some radiation parameters like the input impedance, gain and radiation patterns of antennas; radiation from Thin-Wire Antennas and their electrical characteristics; concept of arrays and their applications; microstrip antennas and their roles in emerging telecommunication systems; Propagation for wireless communications systems; cellular network design based on propagation studies.

ELEC 428 / COMMUNICATION NETWORKS
Sınıf: Credit: 3Precondition:

Next generation communication systems, wireless cellular networks, machine-to-machine communications, Internet of things, software defined networking, physical layer data transmission, channel propagation characteristics, modulation, demodulation, medium access control layer, data link layer, forward and backward error control, routing layer, optimal routing, transport layer, flow control, congestion control.

ELEC 429 / FUNDAMENTALS OF OPTICS
Sınıf: Credit: 3Precondition:

Fundamentals of optics and applications of the optical technology: photon and wave nature of light, geometrical optics, optical instruments, electro-magnetic waves, interference and interferometers, fiber optics, diffraction, diffraction gratings, polarization and its applications, multi-layer films, Fresnel equations, and rainbows. Real world applications of course topics.

ELEC 430 / DETECTION AND ESTIMATION THEORY
Sınıf: Credit: 3Precondition: ELEC.402

Parameter Estimation, Cramer-Rao Lower Bound, Maximum Likelihood/ Maximum A Posteriori Estimation, Stochastic Least Squares Estimation, Wiener and Kalman Filtering, Hypothesis Testing, Signal Detection

ELEC 432 / MULTIMEDIA COMMUNICATIONS
Sınıf: Credit: 3Precondition:

Review of multimedia (image, video and audio) source coding/compression techniques and standards (JPEG, MPEG, H26x), Review of communication and networking architectures and IP networks, QoS, delay, jitter, rate control, scheduling, and traffic engineering for real-time multimedia delivery, Reliability, error control, error concealment and resilience techniques, Streaming media and real-time communication techniques and protocols, RTP/RTCP, IntServ, DiffServ, MPLS, Transmission of multimedia over Internet, wireless channels, mobile cellular networks, GSM, 3G, 4G wireless systems, and satellite networks, Current and future applications of multimedia communications, e.g., voice-over-IP (VoIP), Internet Video conferencing, SIP, IMS, video-on-demand, digital video broadcasting systems, real-time delivery of 3DTV, Current state-of-the-art and future visions in multimedia communications research.

ELEC 433 / QUANTUM ELECTRONICS
Sınıf: Credit: 3Precondition:

Quantum description of light-matter interactions and advanced photonic devices; review of Quantum mechanics, Schrödinger and Heisenberg representations, harmonic oscillator, operator formalism, Fermi?s golden rule, semiclassical theory of stimulated emission, quantization of the electromagnetic field, blackbody radiation, quantum theory of spontaneous emission, Rabi oscillations; Selected topics in semiconductor lasers, photonic waveguides, noise, and light modulators.

ELEC 437 / BIOMEDICAL OPTICS
Sınıf: Credit: 3Precondition: ELEC 206 & PHYS 302

Basic principles, techniques, and instruments used in biomedical optical research. Scattering, absorption, fluorescence and polarization, and how these properties can be utilized in biomedical diagnostics and imaging. Modelling of light-tissue interactions. Ballistic imaging and microscopy. Optical coherence tomography. Optical biosensors

ELEC 441 / SUSTAINABLE ENERGY
Sınıf: Credit: 3Precondition: CHBI. 204 or consent of the instructor

Examine the technologies, environmental impacts and economics of main energy sources of today and tomorrow including fossil fuels, nuclear power, biomass, geothermal energy, hydropower, wind energy, and solar energy. Energy storage systems. Comparison of different energy systems within the context of sustainability.

ELEC 491 / ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING DESIGN I
Sınıf: Credit: 4Precondition: ELEC.310 and ELEC.304 and ELEC.316 OR ELEC.310 and ELEC.301

A capstone design course where students apply engineering and science knowledge in an electrical-electronics engineering design project. Development, design, implementation and management of a project in teams under realistic constraints and conditions. Emphasis on communication, teamwork and presentation skills..

ELEC 492 / ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING DESIGN II
Sınıf: Credit: 3Precondition:

A capstone design project on an industrially relevant problem. Students work on teams in consultation with various faculty and industrial members.

ELEC 501 / RANDOM PROCESSES
Sınıf: Credit: 3Precondition: ENGR. 200 or consent of the instructor

Discrete and continuous random variables and processes, functions of random variables, independence of random variables. Central Limit Theorem. Discrete-time random processes, continuous-time random processes, stationary random processes, ergodicity, auto and cross correlation functions, power spectral density; spectral estimation, white noise processes, Markov chains.

ELEC 504 / DIGITAL SPEECH AND AUDIO PROCESSING
Sınıf: Credit: 3Precondition: ELEC. 201 or consent of the instructor

Sound and human speech systems, phonetics and phonology, speech signal representations, role of pitch and formants, pitch-scale and time-scale modifications, basics of speech coding and VoIP systems, fundamentals of pattern and speech recognition, search algorithms for speech recognition.

ELEC 505 / LINEAR SYSTEM THEORY
Sınıf: Credit: 3Precondition:

Linear Algebra Review, Normal Matrices, Quadratic Forms and Semidefinite Matrices, Inner Product and Norm Spaces, State Space Descriptions for Continuous and Discrete Time Systems, Controllability, Observability, Stability, Realization Theory.

ELEC 506 / DIGITAL IMAGE AND VIDEO PROCESSING
Sınıf: Credit: 3Precondition: ELEC. 303

Review of multi-dimensional sampling theory, aliasing, and quantization, fundamentals of color, human visual system, 2-D Block transforms, DFT, DCT and wavelets. Image filtering, edge detection, enhancement, and restoration. Basic video file formats, resolutions, and bit rates for various digital video applications. Motion analysis and estimation using 2D and 3D models. Motion-compensated filtering methods for noise removal, de-interlacing, and resolution enhancement. Digital image and video compression methods and standards, including JPEG/JPEG2000 and MPEG-1/2 and 4. Content-based image and video indexing and MPEG-7.

ELEC 508 / COMPUTER VISION AND PATTERN RECOGNITION
Sınıf: Credit: 3Precondition:

Study of computational models of visual perception and their implementation in computer systems. Topics include: image formation; edge, corner and boundary extraction, segmentation, matching, pattern recognition and classification techniques; 3-D Vision: projection geometry, camera calibration, shape from stereo/silhouette/shading, model-based 3D object recognition; color texture, radiometry and BDRF; motion analysis.

ELEC 510 / INFORMATION THEORY
Sınıf: Credit: 3Precondition:

Entropy, Relative Entropy and Mutual Information; Asymptotic Equipartition Theory; Entropy Rates of a Stochastic Process; Data Compression; Kolmogorov Complexity; Channel Capacity; Differential Entropy; The Gaussian Channel; Maximum Entropy and Spectral Estimation; Rate Distortion Theory, Network Information Theory.

ELEC 511 / DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS
Sınıf: Credit: 3Precondition:

Characterization of communication signals & systems, digital modulation schemes, optimum reception for the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, signal design for band-limited channels, Nyquist criterion, intersymbol interference (ISI), optimum reception for channels with ISI and AWGN, linear equalization, decision feedback equalization, adaptive equalization, channel capacity & coding, linear block codes, convolutional codes, multichannel and multicarrier systems, spread spectrum signals for digital communications, multiuser communications. Design oriented exercises using computer aids.

ELEC 512 / ADVANCED DIGITAL PROCESSING
Sınıf: Credit: 3Precondition: ELEC. 505 or consent of the instructor

Adaptive Filtering, LMS, RLS and Fast Algorithms, Array Signal Processing, Blind Algorithms & Subspace Methods for Channel Identification and Equalization, Convex Optimization and Its Applications, Multirate Signal Processing and Filter Banks.

ELEC 514 / WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS
Sınıf: Credit: 3Precondition:

The cellular concept, channel assignment strategies, frequency reuse, handoff strategies, interference sources, mobile radio propagation, large-scale path loss, small-scale fading and multipath, modulation techniques for mobile radio, diversity combining, transmit and receive antennas for wireless communication systems, multiple access techniques in wireless, wireless system design for delay intolerant services, wireless system design for delay tolerant services, error correction coding and ARQ schemes, wireless networking, wireless systems & standards: GSM, IS-95, cdma2000, W-CDMA, 3GPP2 1xEV-DO, 3GPP2 1xEV-DV, fourth generation wireless system proposals. Design oriented exercises using computer aids.